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Ultimate Guide to Literary Techniques

This article will guide you through the use and analysis of literary techniques for the HSC English course. Written by the HSC English team at Project Academy.

Elliese Tjeuw

Elliese Tjeuw

English Team


The task of writing an English essay or paragraph is a tricky one. It can almost be likened to a recipe; it needs the precise incorporation of just about everything. You need a topic sentence, an elaborating sentence, an example, analysis etc… In the stress and chaos which sometimes comes with writing essays, it can become quite easy to provide a quote, and call it a day. However, merely supplying a quote in your essay or paragraphs is not enough. There needs to be sufficient analysis of your quote and the technique used within your quote, to achieve the full mark. This page provides you with some examples of English Literature Techniques to help you out!


How many techniques should I be using per essay?

Before responding to this question, it is important to understand that every essay is different. There is no standard formula to a good essay. Five techniques may work for one paragraph, whilst three may work for another.

However, for a three-body paragraph essay, it is recommended that at least three to four quotes and techniques are used.

Why didn’t I get a good mark if I included several techniques in my essay?

There is a common misconception in writing English techniques, that you just need to provide a quote and technique to achieve your desired mark. This is untrue! To achieve the mark, you must understand the importance of the technique and link its significance to your main idea. Yes, it is fantastic to tell me that Shakespeare uses ‘symbolism’ or ‘repetition’ in your quote - but why does he use these techniques? How does this emphasise his authorial purpose?

Try to consider what the author/writer’s purpose for their text is. Are they trying to provide social commentary? Are they trying to make the reader think about a certain topic? Then, connect these ideas to the quotes and techniques you utilise in your work.


PEEL and PETAL are methods to help you when writing your English essays. In following these mnemonics, students are able to easily incorporate the features which are required of an English Analytical Essay.

  • Point
  • Example
  • Evidence
  • Link
  • Point
  • Example
  • Technique
  • Analysis
  • Link

However, this page offers an alternative: PEETAL

Point: How will you respond to the question given?

Elaboration: Provide greater context/understanding to your argument (don’t just dive into your quote!)

Example: Provide a quote that supports your argument

Technique: Provide the corresponding technique

Analysis: Analyse your quote and technique and how they work in conjunction to support your argument

Link: Link your argument back to the question!

Have a look at this example question and response below

Conflict is an inevitable part of the human experience. Discuss this statement in relation to your prescribed text.

Within Shakespeare’s, the Merchant of Venice, conflict between individuals and the collective is highlighted. In doing so, Shakespeare demonstrates how conflict is an inevitable part of the human experience.

The Merchant of Venice, establishes two predominant groups in society; the Christian collective, who play the role of the majority, and the individual minority of Shylock. The conflict between these two groups are deemed inevitable, and prevail from the introduction to the conclusion of the play.

Shylock introduces the nature of this conflict between himself and Antonio, within Act 1, Scene 3, as he states; ‘You call me misbeliever, cut-throat dog, and spit upon my Jewish gaberdine’.

Shakespeare’s animalistic imagery, in which Shylock aligns his status to that of a dog, demonstrates his continual dehumanisation. This is only furthered through the violent connotations of ‘spit’, demonstrating the extent of the abuse which Shylock faces from Antonio.

It is through the conflict between Antonio and Shylock, who act as representations of the conflict between the majority and minority within Venice, that Shakespeare is able to demonstrate how conflict is an inevitable part of the human experience.

How many words should I be writing in my essay?

Again, there is no strict word-limit which should be applied to an essay, but a formal English Essay should be between 800 - 1000 words. When writing your essays on your laptops/online, it may be easy to write an essay that totals to around 1500-2000 words. However, you have to remember that in your Trials and HSC, you really only have 45 minutes for each essay (if you distribute the time limit evenly). So the amount which you are able to write on your laptop in 45 minutes, is not the same as 45 minutes with a pen and paper in hand.

Also remember legibility! You may be able to write 1500 words in the given time frame - but is your writing legible? Is it able to be understood by the marker? There is no point writing 1500 words of fantastic content, if your marker cannot understand a single word.

English Techniques - Definitions & Examples

All about English Language Techniques!

Now that we’ve discussed the importance of English language techniques, and ways in which you can incorporate them into your English Analytical Paragraphs, we can move onto some examples!

Below is a list of techniques which are commonly used in English literature. Whilst this is not a completely comprehensive list of every English technique ever used - it is a solid starting point to help you begin your journey of writing essays and paragraphs.

Techniques and their definitions have been included, to help expand your understanding of how to identify techniques in different types of quotes. As this article has stressed the importance of analysis, and properly analysing your quotes to support your arguments, quotes and analysis have been provided for you. Use these as examples of how to properly analyse your quotes and techniques so you can achieve the mark you deserve!

English TechniqueDefinitionExample

In simple terms, an allegory in literature is when something can mean another thing. This can include the story itself, characters, objects etc.

For example, a story can be an allegory. In which its meaning transgresses past the surface level, to mean something else - usually one surrounding a moral or political message.

An allegory can also be seen in characters. A character can be seen as an allegory for a person in the real world.

An example of an allegory, would be the well known tale of the “Tortoise and the Hare’. Whilst on the surface, the story is about a race between a tortoise and a hare, there is a deeper allegorical meaning behind the text.

The story suggests that taking time to do things, and doing things at your own pace, instead of rushing ahead, allows for greater achievement.


The technique of absurdity is used to suggest a sense of the bizarre or complete unpredictability.

For example, Kafka uses the technique of absurdity in his novella, ‘Metamorphosis’. In doing so, he is able to highlight the true impacts of Gregor’s life. Through turning Gregor into a cockroach, Kafka is able to suggest the decay and the loss of humanity which characterised Gregor’s life.

He found himself transformed in his bed into a horrible vermin’.

Franz Kafka’s, ‘Metamorphosis’


An analogy describes when two things are compared, to make an idea or concept clearer to the reader. It typically has two features - one well-known, regarded topic, and one unknown.

An example of this can be seen in Virginia Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway, as Clarissa Dalloway compares herself to a person who has dropped a grain, or pearl in the grass. In doing so, Woolf compares the act of Clarissa searching for the source of her unhappiness, to someone attempting to find something in a field of grass - a difficult and arduous task.

“As a person who has dropped some grain of pearl or diamond into the grass and parts the tall blades very carefully, this way and that, and searches here and there vainly, and at last spies it there at the roots”


An anecdote is a short story of a writer’s personal experience, which typically works to strengthen their point/argument.

It can at times, be comedic, or act as a cautionary tale, to readers.

It also can provide a writer with an image of greater relatability; to effectively connect with their readers.

An example of this can be seen in Siri Hustvedt’s ‘Eight Days in a Corset’, as she uses a personal experience of her being dressed in a corset, to highlight her argument.

Several summers ago, I worked as an extra in the film version of Henry James’s novel Washington Square. I am not an actress… One of the two wardrobe women handed me a corset, a hoop skirt and a petticoat, which I put on, and then she tightened my stays.

Siri Hustvedt’s, ‘Eight Days in a Corset’


Anthropomorphism is a technique in which human-like qualities are attributed to non-humans.

This can be seen in the example to the left - a scene from George Orwell’s ‘Animal Farm’. In attributing the human-like quality of card-playing to a pig like Napoleon, Orwell effectively demonstrates how the animals on the farm have transformed into those they originally deemed their ‘enemy’.

‘An uproar of voices was coming from the farmhouse… Yes, a violent quarrel was in progress. There were shouting, bangings on the table, sharp suspicious glances, furious denials. The source of the trouble appeared that Napoleon and Mr Pilkington had each played an ace of spades simultaneously.

George Orwell’s, ‘Animal Farm’


Alliteration refers to the repeated use of the same initial letter or sound in a sentence.

NB: Not to be confused with assonance, which is the repetition of vowel sounds.

An example of this can be seen in Auden’s, ‘Moon Landing’.

‘The first flint was flaked this landing was merely a matter of time.’

W.H Auden’s, ‘Moon Landing’


An allusion provides a reference to something from history, or literature. These typically include famous texts, or important, historical events.

In the example to the right, Shakespeare employs a classical allusion, when introducing the character of Portia. In referencing the Greek myth of ‘Jason and the Argonauts’, he likens Bassanio to the myth’s hero, Jason, and subsequently, Portia to his prize, the Golden Fleece.

“Her name is Portia, nothing undervalued … Renowned suitors, and her sunny locks Hang on her temples like a golden fleece, And many Jasons come in quest of her.”

Shakespeare’s ‘The Merchant of Venice’


An archetype, is a character, idea or symbol that remains consistent across literature, and is easily identifiable.

For example, in Shakespeare’s, The Merchant of Venice, it is clear that Portia subverts the archetype of ‘damsel in distress’, which she has been boxed into. By asserting dominance within the courtroom, she breaks down the boundaries of patriarchal authority which are imposed upon her throughout the novel, and suggests the potential for female agency.

I’ll prove the prettier fellow of the two, And wear my dagger with the braver grace, And speak between the change of man and boy With a reed voice, and turn two mincing steps Into a manly stride, and speak of frays

William Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice

Colloquial Language

Colloquial language refers to the use of casual language within literature.

This can be used to imply the rudimentary status of a certain character, create a sense of relatability between reader and writer, or separate the writer from the audience .

An example of this can be noted in the introduction of Auden’s ‘Moon Landing’.

“It’s natural the Boys should whoop it up for so huge a phallic triumph…”

W.H Auden’s, ‘Moon Landing’


Contrast refers to two concepts, ideas, or objects being distinctly different to each other.

An example of this can be noted in Ishiguro’s, ‘An Artist of the Floating World’, as Ono describes his home, and its origins. The contrast between the past, and the current reality of his home, is used by Ishiguro to highlight Ono’s fixation on the past.

‘You may still gain an impression of how picturesque it once was. But no doubt you will notice too the cobwebs and the mould in the ceiling’

Kazuo Ishiguro’s, ‘An Artist of The Floating World’


Dialogue refers to the language and spoken thoughts of a character.

For example, in Ishiguro’s novel, An Artist of the Floating World, Ishuguro utilises dialogue between Miyake and Ono to highlight their disparate opinions regarding the war.

‘I see your point,’ I said. ‘But those who fought and worked loyally for our country during the war cannot be called war criminals. I fear that’s an expression used too freely these days.’

‘But these are the men who led the country astray, sir. Surely, it’s only right they should acknowledge their responsibility. It’s a cowardice that these men refuse to admit to their mistakes. And when those mistakes were made on behalf of the whole country, why then it must be the greatest cowardice of all.’

Kazuo Ishiguro’s ‘An Artist of the Floating World’


Similar to dialogue, diction refers to the language of a character. However, whilst dialogue refers to the spoken word of a character, diction analyses the type of language used by a character. Think about slang, or the manner in which a character speaks.

A great example of this is in Dickens’, ‘Great Expectations’, and the contrasting diction between Pip and Magwitch. In showing the coarse manner in which Magiwtch speaks, in contrast to the refined and eloquent language of Pip, Shakespeare is able to highlight the stark differences in class between the two characters.

“It’s me wot has done it”

The abhorrence in which I held the man…the repugnance with which I shrank from him”.

Charles Dickens’, ‘Great Expectations’


Enjambment, also known as ‘run-on sentences’, refers to the continuation of a sentence without a pause.

An example of this can be seen in T.S Eliot’s, Preludes, as he describes a wasteland of urban life. His use of enjambment suggests the all encompassing nature of the misery of his sordid modern city.

‘The burnt out ends of smoky days. And now a gusty shower wraps The grimy scraps Of withered leaves about your feet’

T.S Eliot’s, ‘Preludes’


Foreshadowing is a technique used in literature, which alludes to an action or event which will unfold later on in the text.

This is evident in Shakespeare’s ‘Macbeth’. In conjunction with his use of pathetic fallacy - a technique which will be detailed below, Shakespeare foreshadows how Macbeth’s murder of King Duncan has disrupted the Elizabethan Great Chain of Being, an action which ultimately leads to the unnatural death of Macbeth.

The night has been unruly. Where we lay, Our chimneys were blown down and, as they say, Lamentings heard i’ th’ air, strange screams of death, And prophesying with accents terrible Of dire combustion and confused events New hatched to the woeful time. The obscure bird Clamored the livelong night. Some say the Earth Was feverous and did shake.

William Shakespeare’s, ‘Macbeth’


Form refers to the construction of a text; the way in which a text is written. When utilising this technique, think of the purpose and intentions of the writer, and include this in your analysis. Why has the writer specifically chosen to write in this way?

A good example of this is in T.S Eliot’s, ‘The Hollow Men’. In writing this poem in a five-part structure, it can be argued that the poem reflects the five act structure of a play; likening the poem to a poetic tragedy.

The night has been unruly. Where we lay, Our chimneys were blown down and, as they say, Lamentings heard i’ th’ air, strange screams of death, And prophesying with accents terrible Of dire combustion and confused events New hatched to the woeful time. The obscure bird Clamored the livelong night. Some say the Earth Was feverous and did shake.

See the poem of T.S Eliot’s ‘The Hollow Men’ for reference.

Fragmented Sentences

Truncated sentences, refers to sentences which have been cut short.

In the example to the right, Shylock’s use of truncated sentences suggests a sense of urgency.

Well, Jessica, go in. Perhaps I will return immediately. Do as I bid you. Shut doors after you. Fast bind, fast find.

William Shakespeare’s, ‘The Merchant of Venice’


Flashbacks describe scenes which occur before the current time period in which the text is set. It is usually used to give greater context, and allow for greater detail to be provided in the story.

Within Nam Le’s, ‘Love and Honour..’’, flashbacks are utilised to give insight into the character, and his family.

….but that night, at a family friend’s party in suburban. They sat cross-legged on newspapers around a large blue tarpaulin, getting smashed on cheap beer. It was that time of night when things started to break up against other things. Red faces, raised voices, spilled drinks. We arrived late and the men shuffled around, making room for my father

Nam Le’s, ‘Love and Honor and Pity and Pride and Compassion and Sacrifice’


Hyperbole is the technique of exaggeration, allowing writers to convey the extremity or dire nature of the situation at hand.

In Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, Romeo’s use of hyperbole when describing Juliet, shows his impulsivity and naivety. In previous acts, he dramatically proclaims his love for Rosaline, claiming how the unrequited nature of his emotions, has led him to his depression. However, after merely catching a glimpse of Juliet, he claims her to be the epitome of beauty, dismissing all prior feelings and emotions toward Rosaline.

“Did my heart live till now? Forswear it, sight! For I ne’er saw true beauty till this night.

William Shakespeare’s, ‘Romeo and Juliet’.


The technique of imagery can be further enhanced upon, through greater specification of the type of imagery being used. Is the writer using olfactory imagery? Tactile?

The 5 types of imagery have been listed below:

  • Olfactory
  • Tactile
  • Gustatory
  • Auditory
  • Visual

An example of this, can be seen in Nam Le’s, ‘Love and Honour..’. His use of olfactory and auditory imagery sets the scene when his father comes to visit.

“The sound of rain filled the room—rain fell on the streets, on the roofs, on the tin shed across the parking lot like the distant detonations of firecrackers. Everything smelled of wet leaves

Nam Le’s, ‘Love and Honor and Pity and Pride and Compassion and Sacrifice’


Imperatives are commands and requests. They are strongly associated with high modality language.

An example of this is the trial scene, during Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice. Portia uses imperatives when she talks to Shylock, forcing him to get onto his knees and beg the Duke.

‘Down, therefore, and beg mercy of the Duke’

William Shakespeare’s, The Merchant of Venice


Irony refers to the act of saying one thing, but doing the complete opposite.

This is seen in Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, as seen to the left. In an exchange between Portia and Bassanio, Bassanio claims that Portia would see reason, if she knew who he had given the ring away to. The irony in this statement is that Portia had seen who he had given the ring away to - as he had given it away to her. However, Bassanio is unaware of this, as Portia had acted under the guise of a man, to participate in the courtroom alongside Bassanio and Antonio.

Sweet Portia! If you did know to whom I gave the ring, If you did know for whom I gave the ring, And would conceive for what I gave the ring, And how unwillingly I left the ring, When naught would be accepted but the ring, You would abate the strength of your displeasure.

William Shakespeare’s, ‘The Merchant of Venice’


Intertextuality refers to the influence of one text, upon another.

This concept can most commonly be recognised in Module A.

An example of intertextuality, is the relationship between Virginia Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway, and Stephen Daldry’s film, ‘The Hours’. The latter is strongly influenced by Woolf’s novel, with it taking the characters of Mrs Dalloway, and re-interpreting them through a cinematic adaptation.


A metaphor is a common technique in literature, and is used to compare two things (objects, ideas, etc.).

An example of this can be noted in Virginia Woolf’s ‘Mrs Dalloway’, as Clarissa compares Lady Bexborough’s skin to crumpled leather.

“Oh if she could have had her life over again! She thought…she would have been, in the first place, dark like Lady Bexborough, with a skin of crumpled leather and beautiful eyes. She would have been, like Lady Bexborough, slow and stately; rather large; interested in politics like a man”


A motif in literature, is an image or symbol which is used recurringly. It aims to develop upon the ideas or themes of a story.

In Virginia Woolf’s novel, Mrs Dalloway, Big Ben serves as a recurring motif for the external passing of time. For the character of Clarissa who reminisces on the freedom and fluidity of her youth, the sounds of Big Ben act as an imposing reminder of her current life, and the patriarchy which she is bound to.

For having lived in Westminster – how many years now? over twenty, – one feels even in the midst of the traffic, or waking at night, Clarissa was positive, a particular hush, or solemnity; an indescribable pause; a suspense (but that might be her heart, affected, they said, by influenza) before Big Ben strikes. There! Out it boomed. First a warning, musical; then the hour, irrevocable. The leaden circles dissolved in the air.

Virginia Woolf’s, ‘Mrs Dalloway’


A non-linear structure is used to describe a text, which is not told in sequential order.

An example of this is in Daphne Du Maurier’s, ‘Rebecca’, which begins in the present, whilst the rest of the story is told in the past tense.

Last night I dreamed I went to Manderley again. It seemed to me that I was passing through the iron gates that led to the driveway. The drive was just a narrow track now, its stony surface covered with grass and weeds.

Daphne Du Maurier’s, ‘Rebecca’


Onomatopoeia is a technique used in literature, which mimics, or is similar to the sound it describes.

An example of this can be seen in Edgar Allen Poe’s, The Bells. This allows the reader to situate themselves in the story, and imagine for themselves the tolling of the bells.

Hear the sledges with the bells— Silver bells! What a world of merriment their melody foretells! How they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle… From the bells, bells, bells, bells, Bells, bells, bells— From the jingling and the tinkling of the bells.

Edgar Allen Poe’s, ‘The Bells’

Pathetic Fallacy

Pathetic Fallacy, refers to a technique in which human emotions are ascribed upon nature and surroundings. It is most typically seen - when the emotions and feelings of a protagonist/character are reflected in the weather around them.

An example of this can be seen in Charles Dickens’, ‘Great Expectations’. The environment around Pip, as he sets off to meet the convict in the marshes, reflects his anxiety and trepidation. The mistiness, and the difficulties in seeing his surroundings, further sets the scene for Pip’s fright.

On every rail and gate, wet lay clammy, and the marsh mist was so thick, that the wooden finger on the post directing people to our village—a direction which they never accepted, for they never came there—was invisible to me until I was quite close under it. Then, as I looked up at it, while it dripped, it seemed to my oppressed conscience like a phantom devoting me to the Hulks.

The mist was heavier yet when I got out upon the marshes, so that instead of my running at everything, everything seemed to run at me.

Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations


Repetition is when a writer repeats words, or phrases. This is typically done with an objective, such as to emphasise their argument or stress their point.

For example, T.S Eliot utilises the technique of repetition in his poem, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. In doing so, he is able to suggest the speaker’s insecurity, and his desires to delay confronting society, and its facades and faces which simply work to reiterate the isolation of his modern world.

And indeed there will be time For the yellow smoke that slides along the street… There will be time, there will be time

T.S Eliot’s, ‘The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock’


Setting describes the environment/world in which a text has been set. This can play a crucial role in the manner in which the character’s behave, or provide insight into the values or principles of a society.

For example, in Shakespeare’s, The Merchant of Venice, the setting provides insight into the value in which money and wealth holds in the lives of characters. Shakespeare’s construction of Venice as a prosperous city of wealth and trade, has lent influence upon characters and their perceptions of money and wealth.

“ACT I SCENE I. Venice. A street.”

Stage Directions in Shakespeare’s, The Merchant of Venice.


Sibilance is a technique which refers to the repeated use of the ‘s’ sound.

In Shakespeare’s Macbeth, his use of sibilance allows for Macbeth’s diction to become almost ominous, through the onomatopoeic, serpentine sounds of his language. This allows audiences to recognise the sinister nature inherent in Macbeth’s character, as he alludes to the religious connotations of serpents, as creatures of evil and chaos.

My thought, whose murder yet is but fantastical/shakes so my single state of man/ That function is smothered in surmise/ And nothing is, but what is not”

William Shakespeare’s, ‘Macbeth’


Symbolism is the process in which something simple is used to represent something bigger, or an idea which is more complex.

As seen in Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations, the description of Pip’s hands do not act as merely a physical description of his character. They are further symbolic of his life, before Ms Havisham and Estella, as a working class boy in the forge.

”He calls the knaves Jacks, this boy!” said Estella with disdain, before our first game was out. “And what coarse hands he has! And what thick boots!”

I had never thought of being ashamed of my hands before; but I began to consider them a very indifferent pair. Her contempt for me was so strong, that it became infectious, and I caught it.

Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations


Syntax refers to the strategic placement of words in a sentence.

It is important to consider authorial purpose when referring to this technique. Why has the writer decided to write this sentence in this manner?

For example, consider Shakespeare’s use of syntax to the left. In constructing Bassnio’s language in such a manner, what is he trying to convey? It can be argued that Bassanio’s choice, to refer to Portia’s wealth before any of her internal/physical qualities, is symbolic of his perception of her. He sees Portia’s wealth, over all other characteristics.

In Belmont is a lady richly left; and she is fair, and, fairer than that word, of wondrous virtues: sometimes from her eyes I did receive fair speechless messages.

Shakespeare’s, ‘The Merchant of Venice’


A simile refers to the comparison of one thing, to another. It typically utilises ‘like or ‘as’.

An example of this can be seen to the right, which features an excerpt from John Keats’ poem, Bright Star. In his poem, Keats utilises a simile, to compare the isolation of the ‘bright star’, to that of a restless hermit. In doing so, he brings forth ideas of loneliness and immortality, which characterise his work.

Bright star, would I were stedfast as thou art— Not in lone splendour hung aloft the night

And watching, with eternal lids apart, Like nature’s patient, sleepless Eremite,

John Keats’, ‘Bright Star’


Zoomorphism is a technique used in literature, in which animal characteristics are employed upon humans.

NB: Not to be mixed up with ‘anthropomorphism’.

An example of this is evident in Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations. In early descriptions of Magwitch, Pip consistently makes comparisons of the former, to a dog. In doing so, Dickens is able to highlight the dehumanising treatment experienced by Magwitch, due to his classification as a criminal by society.

‘I had often watched a large dog of ours eating his food; and I now noticed a decided similarity between the dog’s way of eating, and the man’s. The man took strong sharp sudden bites, just like the dog. He swallowed, or rather snapped up, every mouthful, too soon and too fast; and he looked sideways here and there while he ate, as if he thought there was danger in every direction of somebody’s coming to take the pie away.’

Charles Dickens’, ‘Great Expectations’


Symbolism is the process in which something simple is used to represent something bigger, or an idea which is more complex.

As seen in Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations, the description of Pip’s hands do not act as merely a physical description of his character. They are further symbolic of his life, before Ms Havisham and Estella, as a working class boy in the forge.

”He calls the knaves Jacks, this boy!” said Estella with disdain, before our first game was out. “And what coarse hands he has! And what thick boots!”

I had never thought of being ashamed of my hands before; but I began to consider them a very indifferent pair. Her contempt for me was so strong, that it became infectious, and I caught it.

Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations

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